Tuesday, September 27, 2022

History of the California Blacks Nation Califians (Khalifians) The First Americans

black native americans, indigenous americans
Photo of Indigenous Americans – black native Americans

*According to, author James W. Loewen in his best selling book “Lies My Teacher Told Me,” virtually none of  the body of knowledge,  as taught in  school curricula and World History, has an ounce of truth. (Regarding the American Holiday: Thanksgiving)

The idea that Europeans brought civilization to America  flips the truth on its head. Here is what an expedition of European explorers actually found upon their arrival to North American in 1580. Read through to the end for the hidden  history of the California Black Native Americans.

Robert Beverly’s ‘American Holocaust’ Account 

“Far and away the most beautiful city on earth. Five times the size of London or Rome. Great towers and buildings rising from the water.

Sixty thousand gleaming houses, how spacious and well built the were, of beautiful stone work and cedar wood and wood of other sweet scented trees.

Her many streets and boulevards were so neat and well sweep despite the multitude of inhabitants, criss cross with a complete network of channels like an enormous venice, but also remarkable floating gardens that remind of no where else on earth,” Beverly said.

While Europeans were drinking gutter water from polluted city rivers, huge aqueducts transported America’s water from fresh springs.

“But what impressed most, were special merchant areas filled with timber and tile and other building materials being  bought and sold. As well as green grocers streets where everyone could buy  every sort of vegetable, fruit, honey, past and chocolates.

Astonished by personal cleanliness and hygiene of the colorfully dressed populous and by their extravagant use of soaps, deodorant and breath sweeteners.” — American Holocaust – Robert Beverly

Long  before Europe – coming out of their ‘dark age’ – realized that the world was not flat, there were nations  that were scientifically advanced. There were highly civilized populations with an abundance of gold and  wealth who’s history spanned thousands of years.

Ancient America was notably one of the most advanced civilizations in antiquity.

This was before Christ, before, the Spaniards, before  Mexicans, before the Clovis people who crossed the Barring Straights, before what is now known as the Native American Indian or  Euro conversions.

“No European who has tasted the life of Indians can afterwards not bare to live in any other society” – Ben Franklin

statue of liberty, black native americans, chistopher columbus lie, indigenous americans
First American Statue of Liberty ( created by France as a gift to
the US which was rejected and a new white Statue of Liberty was created.)


California’s Native American Identity

The original indigenous inhabitants of California were the descendants of West Africa, South America’s Olmecs – Xi Empire, 1500 – 400 BCE, Egypt, Asia and the Pacific Islands, creating a mix-cultural nation that thrived  for thousands for years in peace.

They were California blacks, or Califians. Also referred to as Khalifians.

The California blacks  were one of the largest and oldest native nations in the Americas. They were the people Europeans originally referred to as the “Red Man.

The California blacks were followers of  the principles of  Ma’at and they studied, exulted and sought to emulate mythical Gods of Kemet. Including and most importantly: Isis, Horus and Ra. They believed in one supreme God, life after death and heaven on earth.

They were lovingly ruled  by a matriarchal secession, descendants of African queens. Most notably the legendary Queen of California and the Pacific Island Nations; Califia ( Khalifia).

Their true linage, a powerful existence across the globe,  has been systematically erased.  A world wide genocide of biblical proportions was launched and is still in play to this very day.

American Holocaust Quotes

  • “The truth of the first settlers has been deliberately changed, “said Lowell. “because the truth was too shameful.”
  • “They stayed in America because their mission had been a failure, they came in search of gold.” – Robert Beverly, American Holocaust
  • “There is no force in Indian societies, no prisons, no officers to inflict punishment.” – Ben Franklin

indigenous americans, california black native americans
Photo examples of indigenous Americans

The First Thanksgiving Horror

The account that Europeans brought civilization to America is the biggest European lie of all times.

The fact that this revisionist history has been and is still being told and taught  is another reminder that the genocide continues.

The first settlers almost starved to death.  If it were not for the help of the natives they would have. Many Europeans died during this time; they committed suicide, suffered from mental illness and also alcohol addiction.

The first settlers took Indians as prisoners and forced them to teach  them the art of farming.

“They had spent most of their days digging random holes in the ground in search of gold instead of planting crops. Soon they were starving and digging up putrid Indian corps to eat.” – Native American

After teaching the settlers farming and saving them from starvation on the first ‘Thanksgiving ‘ the colonist offered the natives a toast to eternal friendship.  Soon after the chief, his family, advisers and two hundred followers dropped dead of poison.

Hidden History of California Blacks

The true history of California blacks  is a powerful story of  global genocide on a magnitude that is unbelievable. 100 Million Black and Brown people wiped off  the global landscape and American continent with barely a trace.   The history of a magnificent empire is non existent in pop culture, myths and Euro ‘re – visionary’ history.


Let the infamous date, 1492 be spoken and heard by indigenous ancestors from now until eternity. That date marks the beginning of the horrific, evil execution and genocide of indigenous Americans, who were predominantly black’s of Africa, Asia and early history Europeans ad mixture; a fact that has been conveniently and deliberately left out of World History.

This global conspiracy , in addition to  the ‘proven practicality of genocide’ (owed much to English and United States history) was the inspiration for Hitler’s concentration camps.

Hitler praised the ‘efficiency’ of America’s extermination of the ‘red savages.’

In the 1700’s

80% of the United States budget went to attacking Indians and taking their land. 20% of the budget went to education and other spending. 80+% of the Native American population was enslaved or wiped out. George Washington and other USA officials approved of the extermination of the Indian race.

  • Pursue Indians until extermination – Thomas Jefferson
  • Extermination must continue to be waged until the Indian becomes extinct a complete  Erritication of the Native race.    – Theodore Roosevelt

indegenous (black native)
indegenous (black native American)

California,  Greed Gold and Genocide

No group of people suffered as much from the Gold Rush as the California Blacks and other native peoples.

Estimation of the numbers in the area of what is now called California before the arrival of Europeans ranged from ten million three hundred and fifteen thousand or more, a calculation never officially reported.

Even before the gold rush the population had plummeted to 5 – 2.5 million due to slavery, Euro invasion and Christian Document of Discovery. Plus, Mexican, Indian and Spanish wars, along with vigilantly and militia mass murder.  All had taken a tole on the original people.

In the 1800’s

On April 12, 1850 California passed the so called “Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians.” This act allowed any white settler to force any Indian found to be without means of support to work for him.

Since Indians could not testify against a white person in court any Indian could be seized as a virtual slave under the law. Many settlers didn’t even bother with the law and purchased Indian children outright. Fortunes were made off the sale of women and children.

The editorial appearing in the California Marysville Appeal newspaper illustrates this practice: It is from the mountain tribes that the white settlers draw their supply of kidnapped children, educated as servants, and women of purpose of labor or lust.

These are partners of the state who’s soul occupation has been to steal young children and squaws and dispose of them for handsome prices to the settlers who… willing to pay $50 to $60 dollars for a young Digger to cook and wait upon them, or $100 dollars for a likely young girl.


In 1851’s message to the California Legislature, than California Governor Peter H. Burnett promised:

” A war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct.”


California paid one million dollars revenue from the gold fields – to militia’s that hunted down and slaughter natives at will.


Newspapers cheered on the statewide campaign. In 1853 the Yreka Herald called on the government to provide aid to:

“enable the citizens of the north to carry on a war of extermination until the last red skin of these tribes has been killed.

Extermination is no longer a question of time – the time has arrived, the work has commenced and let the first man who says treaty or peace be regarded a traitor.” Other newspapers voiced similar sentiments.

In order to clear the way for white settlement, the United States Senate in 1853 authorized these committees to negotiate treaties with the Indian tribes of California.

Of the over 250 indigenous  nations, eighteen treaties were negotiated. The handful of tribes agreed to give away millions of acres of land in exchange for the U.S. Governments promise to protect the lands with adequate water and game to sustain them and their way of life.

These land would have contained about 7.5 million acres, or 7.5% of the land area of California. The eighteen tribes started moving to their new land location only to find out that the Senate had refused to ratify their treaties. Instead of treaties.

“A system of military post ” on government owned reservations was implemented. Each would put into place a ” system of discipline and instruction; The cost of the troops would be ” borne by the surplus production of Indian labor.” No treaties were to be negotiated; instead they would be “invited to assemble within these reserves.”


Towns offered bounty hunters cash for every Indian scalp they obtained. Rewards ranged from $5 dollars for every severed head in Shasta City in 1855 to 25 cents for a scalp in Honey Lake in 1855.

Indigenous  women were forced to wear the severed head of their husbands or sons around their necks like a neckless for months.

Other regions passed laws that called for the collective punishment for the whole village for crimes by Natives, up to the destruction of the entire village and all of its inhabitants.

These policies led to the devastation of over two hundred native California communities.


In 1857, the state issued four hundred thousand dollars in bonds to pay for anti – Indian militias.


In 1870, the California census only recorded the population at 32,000, however that did not take into count the blacks and other natives who ran away and joined ranks with the Seminoles, and / or other Native nations,  or those who picked up and moved to safer, locations.

The black Califians were not a part of Northern California’s eighteen tribe treaty negotiations of 1853, they continued to valiantly  fight the oppressive invaders until the late 1890’s, the gold rush signaled the beginning of the end for the lands first people.

The gallant, California blacks,  one of the last great native nation to stand up and defend their ancestral home land — America ( Utala – AtLan ) Land of the blacks, was over.


james blackmon, diane blackmon's black native american grandfather
James Blackmon (Diane Blackmon’s Grandfather) b. 1880 d. 1954

Source – Footnotes:

“Lies My Teacher Told Me”  – James W. Loewe
“American Holocaust”  –  Robert Beverly
“Invasion In America” – Francis Jennings
“History and Present State of Virginia” – Robert Beverly
“White Minority of America, RT” – Daniel Bushellrt
“Almost Ancestors: The First Californians” – Theodora Kroeber, Robert Fleming Heizer
“Black Civilization of Ancient America: Susa Economics in the History of Pan – African Trade, Commerce , Money and Wealth –  Isidora Filmena de Solano, Patwin



Historian, researcher, writer, media producer Diane Blackmon Bailey via: dblackmonceo@gmail.com




  1. the strong will rise again it’s already in the making fear of a blackplanet coming to all areas cross the earth

      • No worries Fam, they already know, these are agent on here, they know the truth,they just don’t want other people to wake up. It’s too late, the cat is out of the bag and has come out of the bag to get its pound of flesh from the arrogant ones who think they are immune but the unseen forces our ancestors will get their justice in the form of karmic debt they owe to the indigenous people.

        • It is said ” reality will endure fantasy but it will not spare it; it’s just a matter of time” They did everything they could, to hate away “truth” Yet now “truth” is being revealed…

  2. Lordt. EUR done got Hotep-twittered. This entire article is a hodge podge of myths, folklore and half-facts–there’s history in here, but you have to wade through a ton of nonsense to find it. It’s so much deconstructing it would take all day. But take it’s very premise on “Khalifia” is a mythical character- a black woman who was said to reign over an island called California. The state of California does bear her name. BUT…the character was created by a 16th c. Spanish writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. She was NOT a real person. There are NO such people. That would be like saying there were a people called the Peter-Pan-arians…or Hobbits. Teach the babies right ya’ll. Leave the fairy tales out of history.

    • What your saying
      is not true. I am living proof. I had a DNA Ethnicity test . I am Adopted an I was just wondering about my ethnicity , and I am almost 70% Artisan among , Asian, Egypt, Scottish . It was a great surprise to me. I have been looking for the Artisan people after finding this out . It’s true. Sorry it you feel some type of way about it but History can not be changed. People can put what they want in a book or in there minds. The truth is the truth and that is just the way it is.

      • Say that family, this is probably an agent trying to surf the web to keep the masses in a dumb state so they wont learn the truth that we were here first before the so-called indian who happen to also be our family but they are the mongoloid of East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Eastern Russia, the Arctic, the Americas, parts of the Pacific Islands, and parts of South Asia mixed with us.

    • You need to go drown you self in your sorrows and educate your self there is evidence for what is said in this article and much more and FYI there is scientific evidence also showing they were ppl as short as the Hobbits which are called Hobbits!

      • Tunji, this is quite obvious. But folk on here don’t want to actually listen or do their own research. They think telling you they read Van Sertima’s “They Came Before Columbus” settles everything, because they don’t seem to grasp critical analysis (e.g., one can agree w/Van Sertima on somethings and disagree on others). Anything you say to the contrary and they get conspiratorial going on about “agents” or what have you. That’s how dogma works. Glad to see some who don’t fall for it. Must be Legba. 😉

    • You’re correct! Khalifia is a fictional character created by “the white man” or a Spanish author lol! In the story, Khalifia was a pagan who converted to Christianity after being captured in battle, she later married a Christian man. Hoteps won’t like that lol! These folks don’t do any research & believe anything. The author of this post is intellectually dishonest.

  3. The pictures were hilarious. Did someone invent a time machine and take a camera back to 200 years? Some of these things are just laughable… best piece of fiction since the bible.

    • The only thing Columbus discovered is the fact that he was lost!!! & For the unknowledged!! History is just His “Story”. We must remember this as a fact!!!.

  4. Let’s face it, The white man has done a job on deceiving us about how this country got started. With the Columbus BS, and now they are trying to do it again in Texas, with the history books. They have painted their part as innocent explorers, who happened upon a land of plenty, right! Let them tell it, slaves were immigrants, implying that we came on our on free will! And as for as you, The disgruntled Haradrim, are concerned, I don’t know it to be true, and I suggest that you don’t either. However, I see that you prefer to believe this hyped up story that was feed to you by this corrupt white establishment, and how they had Thanksgiving, before killing off the real Americans. Unfortunately, the real truth of how they killed and pillaged the American Indian in this country, and the enslaving of Africa’s, is only half the truth. They are still trying to give a clean version of what really happened. So who knows what really happened; we certainly can’t believe the story tellers.

    • I’d take my chances on the ‘black’ facebook before I would the people who write US school books..seems they want to rewrite history and make kidnapped, african slaves brought here against their will as ‘immigrant workers’…you people are liars and always have been. Your lies are just catching up to you now. If I’m going to believe a lie, I’m going to believe one that makes me look good–just like your ancestors have done for millenia.

  5. There’s a long running comic book and a recent tv series about a white man thats the fastest man on the planet earth.

    Some of us are so indoctrinated by obvious bs that we discredit anything that contridicts what our minds have been lured into accepting.

    1) Jesse Owens knocked the master race concept on its @ss. Now there’s Usane Bolt yet flash is still here with no push back by anyone that should know better.

    2) Nazi concentration camps in South Africa and King Leopolds slaughter plantions in the Congo are only a micro few of the examples of genocide in Africa.

    It’s unfortunate that the naysayers are ill informed and not ready to advance intellectualy the fact that they were actually lied to before this article. Typos…someone cited typos…some of the greatest lies in human history may be found in some of the most gramattically sound and pristine books in the world.

  6. Let’s face it, another bullshit article that is smut reporting of lies, not to mention the person cannot write very well. Native Indians were the only people in the states, there is no historical proof that black folks ever were in North America. Not too mention, certain blacks want to jump on the bandwagon of “we were here first, we invented it first bullshit.”

    The white man was jealious of Indians in America when they got there, not blacks, because there were none when they arrived. If you cannot tell the truth it is best to shut it.

  7. You don’t need a STORY to know your history. The story is only a perspective of one persons point of view, flawed or not. What existed in BEGINNING has left evidence of it’s existence. Just keep DIGGING and documenting. That is HISTORY!

  8. Please can anyone share information on the words Atlan and Utala, The land of the blacks? Origin, sources, etc
    Thank you.

  9. Ok, who wrote this really? What are they smoking and I hope they aren’t sharing it! It’s so sad when black people feel the need to fabricate history in order to feed some misplaced, misguided, sense of pre-slavery origins. This only serves to make us look like lost fools so ravenous to piece together a black skinned lineage, we are willing to except even the most fantastical, unproven, inaccurate, story from one…one obscure author and except it as true! Stop emulating the enemy with stupid, STUPID attempts to prove racial superiority!

    • Europeans Are As Ignorant As They Come, You Honestly Think 100% Of Africans came on Ships called Jesus & The Good Lord. NO! What You Need To Understand Is We Are Your Fathers. Before The So Called Chosen Man And The Native Man There Was The Original Man. From Black Comes Every Thing Else. Black Is Dominant And Can Create Any Color. A Third Grader Knows That. From Brown Yellow & Pale White You Can’t Get Nothing From White But Lies Death Destruction & Fake Christians. I Will Give You One More Fact Africa Is 137 Million Miles Long And The Most Mineral Rich Land With The Most Natural Wealth On The Planet. That’s Where The Tru Garden Of Eden Was. NOTHING Grows In Europe But The Pine Tree Hence Forth why we bow to it every Dec 25th

  10. This is some of the most blatant, poorly-written pieces of historical revisionism I’ve seen in a while. Seriously, the complete lack of source, miss-cotations and myths is just sad.

    One only has to look to the claim of “First American Statue of Liberty”. Its a myth, a bad one, the statue was build in 2007!


    If I were to follow this line of “logic” i could claim ANYTHING from “the holocaust did not happened”, to “Europe went to Mars in the 1200″.

    >”Ancient America was notably one of the most advanced civilizations in antiquity.”

    Then where is the fucking proof? Where is the evidence? Did the “evil Europeans” destroy it all? If such why did they leave all the other temples in south america, Egypt, etc stand?

    • It’s just amazing how many govt paid trolls and agents mysteriously always find their way to blogs & sites geared to black people. They swarm on our sites like flies to crap. It’s obviously an organized effort because it’s so consistent. Like a virtual version of CoINTELPRO. Black people you know what I mean if you frequent any site like this or venture to YT and any video about us..they are always there, doing what they have done for millenia–lie. The problem is a lie can only live only so long and the jig is up for them. And now we see why they were so adamant that black slaves not being able to read..lol…so their lies could keep going. And to the idiot above who said the pics look fake..I’ve seen pics of Abraham Lincoln and other pics from slavery times and nobody questions the legitimacy of those. The camera or earlier versions of it have been around for centuries now so these pics are no more ‘fake’ than pics I’ve seen of Lincoln or Teddy Roosevelt or those from the civil war. I swear, the US govt hires some dumb ass trolls. Don’t they train you or give a book to read before they let you cretins loose? lol..I guess not.

  11. I’ve often wondered about Natives in other parts of America. In school we were only taught about tribes on the east coast. That could be because that is where I lived. A friends posting this article lead me here. Now, I will say the article is not a scientific paper. I am sure there are some things that are not true. However, given the past in how the United States has handled other situations, such as the Japanese interment camps, it can’t be negated that there is truth behind this. I fully believe that the settlers were capable and purposefully set out to rid the territory of Natives. History has show this happening over and over again, in Europe,Africa, India, and Australia just to name a few. Now that as a people, white or otherwise we are starting to find out the truth, what really happened, yet we are blaming our neighbors for these event. That’s not fair. To talk poorly of someone because they are white is just as wrong to talk poorly of someone that is black, Spanish, Asian or Indian. We should educate our children what happened and why it wasn’t a good thing, so that together we can move beyond these racial/religious bonds we place on each other. Teaching our children respect for others and their culture is best and appropriate thing to do. Not teach more hate because of something that happened hundreds of years before they were born.

  12. This story is wrong for so many reasons. In attempting to elevate the black man you denigrated an entire race that was oppressed and genocidally destroyed. Yes there were black indians. But the came later as the slaves ran off and joined the amerindian tribes. Please stop with this craziness. Too many dna tests prove you wrong as if we didn’t know already from looking at the people ourselves.

  13. White folk just can’t handle hearing the depths of their wickedness! Own up, because your judgement for those deeds is nearing.

  14. This is highly inaccurate and also hurts actual native tribes who were killed in the area. Saying that a fictional queen was one of the first Americans is disrespectful to actual indigenous people like my family. Native Americans were never known to have queens, ever. A Spanish writer who never travelled to California wrote a book about this fictional queen and island in 1500 ad. Native Americans were already living there. Garci Rodriguez de montaluo’s book caused the Spanish adventures to search for a land west of the indies. They had never adventured that far north. They named California before they even learned the language of the natives. California means high mountains. The rest is a fictional story made by a writer. The fact that this article couldn’t bother to fact check is rediculous and self serving in so many ways. It’s extremely disrespectful to tear down the real Native Americans based off of zero facts and a fictional story that is Spanish in origin. Both races should be working together for all cultures that have been harmed not tearing each other down. Please have respect for what we lost too.

  15. I agree with those who call BS on this article, regardless of their race. There’s some accurate history here, yes but there’s so much inaccuracy it’s embarrassing, at least it is to me. We all know of the epic offences of the white man towards blacks and native Americans, it’s been reliably recorded and reported from numerous reputable sources. But this? This is a lot of fantasist historical revision with little relation to history. We as black people do need to know our history, but we also don’t need Afrocentric master race fantasies to counter white folks master race fantasies that have been promoted to us, and to themselves for that matter. And for what it’s worth, I’m a black male who can see through this BS, not that this should matter in the least.

  16. This piece may be poorly written and field with errors, but the underlying message may have validity. The painting of St. Mary of the Good Winds in Spain shows what Indians or Native Americans looked like. And it’s not the popular image we’ve been taught: http://youtu.be/OjCPPk-aTY8

  17. Typical afrocentric nonsense. On one hand history text books are lies but on the other we will cherry pick among fictional jibberish written by whites centuries ago. Only when we understand how to construct a hypothesis based on solid verifiable facts will we have any credibility.

    Any self respecting black parent teaching their children transparent lies like these, disrespect authentic native americans who suffered as much or more so than ourselves is a hollow no good fool.

  18. YOU CANT HANDLE THE TRUTH!! First of all, before there were ANY other type of modern man, the entire world was ‘Red’ and/or ‘Brown’. Let’s start there. I’m talking millions of years ago.Has anyone ever noticed how the continents fit together like a puzzle..its called continental drift theory and also goes back to Pangea. The coverup has been pretty thorough, but as the Age of Aquarius dawns, we have left Pisces (belief) and are now in the Age of Knowing. I now its hard to accept for those who have been/continue to be completely brainwashed, but the indisputable Truth WILL BE KNOWN BY ALL. You see, our ancestors were master cosmologists who could already see the future based on observed galactic cycles…so everything you think you are discovering, invented or are evolving into has already been forseen, including the outcome. Due to your unfortunate lack of melanin, many can not perceive or connect to Nature/Neter/Nurture/GOD and like a dog who can’t see color, you base your reasoning from observable physical phenomena that you can measure. The problem with this is that everything happens in spirit first/the unseen. Go see if you can get into the Smithsonian Institute or the Vatican and demand to see the miles and miles of ‘lost’ books and artifacts that prove everything here (America has more pyramids than Africa). Listen trolls, if you are even real people or some sort of twisted AI, your logic and approach is actually helping the cause to truth because any rational and independent researcher can readily search the Web nowadays and see through your poisonous and obvious bias…yep, the double edged sword of the internet…you got everyone’s info, but now everyone has your’s as well. SWEET.

  19. Some of this seems to be a bit suspect, but the photos ask another question: how late were these taken? 1. Had to be after photography was invented, and 2. Siding on building structures is considered somewhat modern. That is, the pictures don’t go with the story.

  20. As a Anthropologist who specializes in the first peopling of America and as an enrolled Osage and Muskogee Native American, I’m is utter disbelief of the way misinformation and flat out make believe that was strung together to create this fairytale. Fellow Archaeologist, DNA experts and Historians have dine a unbiased and through job documenting the first inhabitants of California, North and South America. My old professor was obsessed with Olmecs, having done extensive work down there and contributed on many books on the subject. He looked at some “evidence’ brought to him asking about a black connection and he was able to show this persona how wrong all the documents/photos/theories were. Not only is there no authentic evidence to support African Americans as first nor early inhabitants, but there is an abundance of evidence from both America, African and European on the history of slave trade and how the Africans were brought to these continents (among others). Not to mention, personal interviews and biographies from slaves documenting their horrific experience being brought here. ALL DNA obtained from remains found on both continents have been from Hap groups not containing any African. A few years ago, some Africans started studying Olmecs and their self-depictions in art and tried to make connections to African peoples. A lot of Africans today claim ancestry and yet none really have been found. Dr. Louis Gates , African American Harvard professor, alone has shattered that myth. Cherokees had Black slaves as did some other tribes in South east so, I assume there was similar intermingling as with white slave owners. But there are no black natives, no black first inhabitants. Columbus never made it anywhere near America, true. But no West Africans had the capacity to travel the Atlantic to the Americas during that time frame. And, the unfortunate truth of what happened is well documented. There are white Europeans trying to claim that their ancestors were here before the birth of the nations and are the first inhabitants, but theres no truth to that either. Its not my opinion, it’s fact.

  21. Lois Gates is a FRAUD who is being paid to destroy the notion of dark sinned native Americans. That’s why they arrested his ass to show that he is not above the law and to keep his ass in line. Anyone who is commercialized and plastered all over the media is there to manipulate the minds of the masses. I don’t get my sources from that uncle Tom. All these so called Anthropologists better do deeper research on this matter and stop getting your information from the wrong sources, because you do not know what you’re talking about. Yeah, even you need to wake the fuck up.


  22. Ancient Chihuahuas in Southeastern U.S.?

    Do three dog effigy pots excavated in Georgia in the 1930s at the Bull Creek Site and one from the Neisler Mound site represent the Chihuahua breed, a native dog of Mexico? Is the tribe most likely associated with these pots the Kasihta/Cussetta Creek Indians whose migration legends strongly suggest an origin in west Mexico, likely the state of Colima which is also known for similar dog effigy pots?

    Did the Kasihta raise Chihuahuas for food which they fattened up for this purpose as depicted by the pots and as recorded by early Spanish eye-witness accounts? Finally, does this evidence overturn all the conjecture and theories of possible Old World influence on the origin of the Chihuahua and prove that it is purely a New World dog that dates back at least to 100 AD in Mexico?

    In 1937 archaeologists unearthed three dog effigy pots from the Bull Creek site in Muscogee County, Georgia. The final report on the site only devoted a few paragraphs to the discussion of these pots. The first discussion stated:

    “Bottles from the Bull Creek site consist entirely of mortuary vessels…This category includes three bottles commonly known as the Bull Creek cemetery dog pots. Figure 156 shows the three vessels and three examples of similar vessels from other sites in the region. The three vessels from Bull Creek and the one vessel from Neisler Mound are considered the only known examples of this one type of negative painted dog effigy vessel.”1

    The dog pots were next discussed in the pottery types section of the report:

    “The dog pots from Bull Creek included two varieties of painting. The two vessels from Burials 3 and 7 exhibited red spiral designs on a buff background. The third exhibited a black pattern on a reddish background. A third vessel is most similar to a dog pot recovered from Neisler Mound (see Figure 156).

    In 1979 the Bull Creek negative painted pottery was given the type name Nashville Negative Painted variety Columbus and was considered a local copy of similar vessels from the northwest (Williams 1979). More recently Scarry gave the Bull Creek pots a new type status as Columbus Negative Painted variety Columbus (Scarry 1985:213).

    Schnell has noted on several occasions that only four examples of the Bull Creek varieties of negative painted dog pots are known to exist (Schnell 1990:69). This conclusion has been reaffirmed through communications of both Schnell and the senior author with individuals knowledgeable of the antiquities market in the region. The recovery of three-fourths of the known examples of this vessel form from a single site, Bull Creek, does represent a unique occurrence.”2

    PAGES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  23. Were Creek Indians from West Mexico?
    Many of the cultural traditions and artifacts discovered in Mississippian period archaeological sites in Georgia have strong similarities to cultural traditions in the west Mexican states of Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima. These traditions include the creation of circular pyramids, shaft tombs, dog effigy pots, human ancestral pair sculptures, and tree of life symbolism. Other artifacts discovered in Georgia have strong similarities to Olmec artifacts from the west Mexican states of Guerrero and Jalisco including bird man masks, three-pronged ceremonial maces, and jaguar deities. Migration legends of historic Muskogee Creek Indian tribes living in Georgia also suggest an origin in west Mexico.

    Two of the most famous artifacts discovered in Georgia are the male and female human effigy statues found at the Etowah Mounds site. Carved from local marble and discovered buried in a log-lined tomb in the Funeral Mound (Mound C) at Etowah, they are believed to represent venerated ancestors. It is theorized that these statues were part of an ancestor worship cult that existed throughout the Mississippian time period.

    A similar tradition of ancestor pair ceramic sculptures buried in specialized tombs is known from west Mexico. These sculptures were part of what is referred to as the Western Mexico Shaft Tomb Tradition.[i] Such tombs and their associated artifacts are distributed across the states of Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima in west Mexico. It should be noted that in Colima by 600 AD the ceramic figures had become solid and they also integrated stone elements with their gods’ representations

  24. Circular Pyramids

    A mound constructed at the Lamar Mounds site in Macon, Georgia near the Ocmulgee Mounds site was a circular pyramid accessed by a spiral ramp. It is the only such structure known to have existed in the eastern United States. Circular stepped pyramids were also a feature of the Teuchitlan Tradition in the western Mexican state of Jalisco. The latest research shows these circular pyramids were built at the same time as the shaft tombs and were part of the same cultural tradition.[xiii] Circular pyramids in Mexico were usually associated with Quetzalcoatl, the Featherd Serpent deity, in his guise as Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, a wind god.[xiv]

    Although the Teuchitlan circular pyramids were step-pyramids lacking a circular ramp and the layout of the two sites was also different, it does reveal that at least the “idea” of a circular pyramid existed in western Mexico and could have migrated along with the other ideas and evolved into its own unique expression as seen at the Lamar site.

    Lamar Mounds Spiral Mound
    The spiral mound at the Lamar Mounds site near Ocmulgee. Notice the man standing on top of the structure and the one on the ground to the left.
    Circular stepped pyramid of west Mexico Teuchitlan tradition
    Circular pyramid from Teuchitlan Tradition in Jalisco, Mexico.

    An Olmec Connection?

    A little further south in the western Mexican state of Guerrero other artifacts were found that also have a correlation with artifacts found in the Etowah Mounds site in Georgia. A stone sculpture or stela believed carved by Olmecs after 900 BC was found in San Miguel Amuco, Guerrero.[xv] It depicts a man wearing a bird mask similar to the Bird Man copper breast plate found in the funeral mound at Etowah Mounds. Protruding from the head of the Olmec bird man is a three-pronged design similar to the design of ceremonial maces found at Mississippian sites throughout the southeast.

    Olmec “bird man” stela from Guerrero in west Mexico Etowah Mounds Bird Man copper plate
    Olmec stone sculpture showing man wearing bird mask with a three-pronged ceremonial mace design on his head Copper breast plate from Etowah Mounds, Georgia depicting a man wearing a bird mask, holding a three-pronged ceremonial mace with a rectangular symbol on his waist pouch.
    One such ceremonial mace can be seen in the same Bird Man breastplate from Etowah though it has somewhat more rounded edges than the Olmec design. A nearly identical design can be found at Spiro Mounds. A three-pronged mace closer to the Olmec stela design can be found on a shell gorget which depicts a warrior with a forked-eye motif holding a severed head in one hand and the three-pronged ceremonial mace in the other hand.

    Mississippian ceremonial mace from Spiro Mounds Mississippian shell gorget: Forked-eye Warrior with ceremonial mace and severed head
    Three-pronged ceremonial mace from Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma that is identical to the one on the Etowah bird man copper breast plate. Mississippian shell gorget depicting warrior with forked-eye motif holding a three-pronged ceremonial mace
    Interestingly, the Olmec also depicted themselves wearing a forked-eye motif in some of their ceramics. They also showed themselves wearing a rectangular breastplate very similar in design to the rectangular motif on the bellows-shaped pouch hanging from the waist on the Etowah Bird Man copper plate which may represent a clan symbol.

    Olmec ceramic featuring forked-eye motif Olmec twin statue from El Azuzul
    Olmec ceramic showing forked-eye motif Rectangular breastplate on Olmec statue from El Azuzul
    The Olmec were also known for creating sculptures and masks featuring a distinctive cleft head. This same feature can be seen on Mississippian Long-Nosed God masks throughout the eastern United States.

    Olmec mask with cleft head Long-nosed god maskette with cleft head
    Olmec mask with cleft head Long-nosed God mask with cleft head
    Long-nosed God maskettes map Long-nosed God pendants from Guatemala
    Map showing distribution and variety of Long-Nosed God masks with cleft heads. Variety of long-nosed God stone pendants from Guatemala
    It should also be noted that the Long-Nosed God is a deity shared by many cultures throughout Mesoamerica and probably originates with the Olmec. Of course, the Olmec are also the originators of the “feathered serpent” deity that can also be found throughout eastern North America.

  25. The Olmec were also known for the creation of jaguar motifs in their art. Likewise, the Underwater Panther was a major component of the Mississippian belief system.

    Caddoan Underwater Panther bowl Underwater panther
    Caddoan pot featuring the Underwater Panther. Another image of the Underwater Panther
    Piasa Underwater Panther
    Piasa creature which merges characteristics of both the horned water serpent/feathered serpent and underwater panther
    The Underwater Panther was often associated with a swastika or swirling wind symbol. Swastica symbols are also known among the southwestern Puebloan tribes. Among the Hopi it is said to represent the wandering Hopi clans.[xvi] The Hopi also have many aspects of Mesoamerican religion within their culture (such as the horned water serpent) that are thought to have arrived via trade contacts with west Mexico. Interestingly, the swastika or swirling wind symbol is said to represent the Wind Clan among the Creek Indians who hold that this is among their most ancient clans.

    Thus multiple aspects of Olmec culture were shared by Mississippian culture: bird man masks, three-pronged ceremonial maces, forked-eye motifs, rectangular “clan” symbols,, cleft head masks, and deities including the long-nosed god, feathered serpent, and jaguar/underwater panther. Another shared cultural trait, the building of pentagonal earthen mounds, will be discussed later.

    As was mentioned previously the state of Guerrero is somewhat south of the aforementioned states of Nayarit, Colima and Jalisco. Although the Olmec stone carving is proof that they had reached deep into western Mexico it does not preclude the possibility that they also penetrated even further north into the aforementioned states where the west Mexican shaft tomb tradition originates.

    Is there any evidence of Olmec influence there? In fact, there is. Archaeologists unearthed a jaguar-form vessel from a shaft tomb at a site called Los Coamajales in the Mascota Valley of Jalisco that dates to between 1000-700 BC and is thought to be associated with the Olmecs.[xvii] Like the Underwater Jaguar it is shown bearing its teeth.

    Olmec jaguar vessel from west Mexico Olmec jaguar vessel from Jalisco in west Mexico
    This jaguar-form vessel suggests an Olmec presence in west Mexico between 1000-700 BC the same time as the La Venta site on the Gulf Coast.
    Also, pottery from Colima includes two distinctive forms that were also common to the Olmec: the acrobat form and the hunchback/baby form.

    Colima Hunchback Pot showing Olmec style Olmec baby pots
    Colima hunchback pot showing distinctive form Olmec “baby” pots also show identical forms.
    Colima Acrobat Olmec acrobat or shaman
    Colima acrobat form Olmec acrobat form
    This evidence strongly suggests the people of western Mexico were influenced by Olmec civilization. This helps explain how Olmec artistic traditions and west Mexican artistic traditions seem to have arrived together into the eastern United States.

    Creek Migration Legends

    Similarity in cultural and artistic traditions is not the only thing that links the Creek Indians to west Mexico. The Creek migration legends also support a western origin for this tribe. The migration legend begins:

    At a certain time the Earth opened in the West, where its mouth is. The earth opened and the Cussitaws came out of its mouth, and settled near by. But the earth became angry and ate up their children; therefore, they moved further West. [xviii]
    What we can discern from this passage is that the Cussitaws originated in an area that experienced earthquakes. We can also discern that this location was not by the ocean because they were able to move further west, not possible if they were a coastal people. The legend says they returned to their original location and then, due to more earthquake activity, decided to leave again but this time headed towards the sunrise. After following two rivers east the legend says they

    heard a noise as of thunder. They approached to see whence the noise came. At first they perceived a red smoke, and then a mountain which thundered; and on the mountain was a sound as of singing. They sent to see what this was; and it was a great fire which blazed upward, and made this singing noise.
    This clearly refers to a volcano. There have only been a few active volcanoes in North America over the past thousand years. But the first order of business is to determine the time period in which to look.

    Popocatepetl night eruption
    Popocateptl at night showing “red smoke” that is actually “a great fire which blazed upward.”
    A clue from another version of the migration legend states that one of the first structures the tribe built when they arrived at their final destination in the east was a “mound [with a] great chamber in the center.”[xix] Such a “mound with a central chamber” referred to as an earth lodge was discovered at a site in Macon, Georgia known as Ocmulgee Mounds. In fact, Creek Indian tradition holds that the Ocmulgee Mounds site is the place where they “first sat down” after their long migration from the west.[xx] Thus the migration legend, Creek traditions, and archaeological evidence all seem to support the idea that Ocmulgee Mounds was the place where they built their “mound with a central chamber,” i.e., an earth lodge.

    The Earth Lodge was found at Ocmulgee Mounds during excavations in 1938.[xxi] The earth lodge had been burned and archaeologists were able to date this charcoal to around 1019 AD. Thus we know the immigrants had arrived at Ocmulgee sometime before 1019 AD therefore we need a volcanic eruption before this time as well.

  26. posted on FEBRUARY 27, 2011 by GARY C. DANIELS
    Were Creek Indians from West Mexico?

    Searching for the Mountain of Fire (Volcano)

    Here are the known eruptions in the western USA according to USGS data from 1200 AD and before[xxii]:

    Name, Location Last Eruption
    Mount Adams, Washington 500 BC +- 1000 years
    Mount Washington, Oregon 670 AD
    Mount Jefferson, Oregon 950 AD
    Blue Lake Crater, Oregon 680 AD +-200 years
    Belknap Crater, Oregon 460 AD
    Sunset Crater, Arizona 1122 AD +- 58 years
    Medicine Lake Volcano, California 1080 +-25 years
    Eruptions in the Pacific Northwest including northern California are unlikely candidates since the cultural traditions of the Muskogee-Creek do not match anything in that area. This leaves Arizona as the most likely candidate yet the Sunset Crater eruption in this area occurred after 1019 AD. Also, the eruption actually created the cone of the volcano. Before the eruption there was simply a crater or caldera and thus no “mountain” which to climb. Therefore with no suitable eruption in the right time period in the U.S. we must look for volcanic eruptions in Mexico. Here are the known eruptions in northern and central Mexico according to USGS data from 1200 AD and before:

    Name, Location Eruptions
    Ceboruco Volcano, Nayarit 930 AD +-200[xxiii] (Ongoing since)
    Colima Volcano, Colima & Jalisco Most active in Mexico- ongoing
    Popocatepetl 800 AD (last major eruption)
    Pico de Orizaba ongoing
    Of the volcanoes listed, Ceboruco and Colima are both in the same geographical areas as the artifacts from the western Mexican shaft tomb tradition. The Ceboruco eruption between 730-1130 AD is within the right time frame for a migration from this location to reach the southeastern U.S. by 1019 AD. (The migration of the Aztec from their homeland into central Mexico is thought to have taken 320 years, by comparison.) This eruption was also the largest in Mexico in the past 10,000 years[xxiv] causing devastation to an area over 500 square kilometers.[xxv] This eruption would have certainly been preceded by earthquake activity and its size would certainly have inspired people to move from the region. Thus the Ceboruco volcano is a good candidate.

    To reach Spiro and the Caddoan Mississippian Culture Area in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana one would have to travel northeast from Ceboruco. The sun appears to rise from the northeast during the summer months[xxvi] and is at its most extreme northeastern position on the summer’s solstice around June 21.[xxvii] Since the migration says they were heading towards the sunrise it is likely this was the time of year they set out.

    There is another possibility. The migration legend states they headed toward the sunrise and then reached the volcano. There is no directional evidence after this point in the legend except that they mixed the fire from the volcano with fire that came from the north.

    Direction of Sunrise on the summer solstice in Nayarit, Mexico
    Yellow line shows direction of sunrise (NE) on June 21 from Nayarit, Mexico. (Image produced with The Photographer’s Ephemeris software.)
    The Creeks called themselves the People of One Fire. In Creek Indian tradition, the idea of mixing of fire is the same as mixing of people. Thus it is possible that the reference in the migration legend to mixing of fire from the volcano with fire that came from the north suggests they migrated north from Ceboruco and mixed with a new people. The preponderance of the evidence supports this conclusion as we will see.

    View larger map
    Map showing (A) Mount Ceboruco in Nayarit, Mexico and (B) Pueblo Bonito at Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and (C) Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma.
    Can the Creek Migration Legends be Trusted?

    Of course, all of the preceding evidence is conditional to the accuracy of the migration legends. Is there any evidence that may help confirm the reliability of these ancient oral traditions? Creek Indian tradition maintains that the Ocmulgee Mounds site in Macon, Georgia was the site where they “first sat down” after their long migration from the west.

    Additionally, the migration legends of this tribe were all recorded between the early 1700s and 1800s long before any archaeological investigations took place at the Ocmulgee Mounds site in the 1930s. Thus, if the archaeological data from the 1930s matched data in the migration legends recorded a century or two earlier, this would provide strong corroboration as to the reliability of these legends.

    In fact, there are many pieces of evidence uncovered at the Ocmulgee Mounds site that corroborate information in the migration legend. The migration legend mentions that Ocmulgee was originally inhabited by a race of “flathead” Indians whom they massacred upon arriving in order to take over the town. Archaeologists noted that the burials in the lowest part of the burial mound showed signs of cranial deformation while burials in the upper levels did not.[xxviii] This supports the idea that the people who practiced cranial deformation were replaced by a people who did not.

    The legend also states that on their journey eastward towards the sunrise they encountered a man-eating large cat, i.e. a panther, which they killed. They kept the bones of this cat and would take them into battle with them to assure success. Archaeologists uncovered a headdress in one burial that was made from the jawbones of two panthers and featured two copper ornaments embossed with a rising sun. Both of these pieces of evidence seem to support these details of the migration legend.

    Panther Jaw Headdress found in Funeral Mound at Ocmulgee Mounds
    Headdress found in Ocmulgee Mounds Funeral Mound
    Finally, as mentioned previously, the migration legend states that the first structure they built at Ocmulgee Mounds was a “mound with a central chamber” which sounds remarkably similar to the earth lodge discovered by A. R. Kelly in 1938.

    Ocmulgee Earth Lodge
    Ocmulgee Earth Lodge which is a “mound with a central chamber” as described in the migration legend
    Archaeologist Lewis Larson noted that the 19th century researcher Swanton “provided the most detailed and exhaustive survey of the ethnohistorical literature covering the domestic and public architecture of the southeastern Indians. A review of his survey reveals that there are no structures comparable to the Macon Plateau earth lodge as it has been described by Kelly….”[xxix]

    In other words, during the time period that the migration legends were recorded, no known structure similar to an earth lodge was in existence thus: 1) how could a Native American informant at this time describe such a structure and 2) how could the description of this structure match perfectly with the archaeological data from excavations conducted nearly 200 years after the legend was recorded? Either the informant in question was psychic or the legend is an accurate recounting of real historical events.

  27. Larson goes on to call into question Kelly’s “earth lodge” interpretation of his findings and goes so far as to refute the very existence of earth lodges in the southeast even at Ocmulgee Mounds. Yet the migration legend seems to support Kelly’s interpretation of the data as, indeed, a “mound with a central chamber,” i.e., earth lodge.

    There is other evidence, however, that the practice of constructing earth lodges was still in existence at least up until the early 1500s when the first Spanish explorers arrived in the North Carolina region. According to an entry in one of Juan Ponce de Leon’s journals it noted,

    “When we arrived on the shores of the Northern islands we encountered an odd group of natives. They lead us to their village where they lived in hollow’d mounds and were fully covered in mud and refuse. My lieutenant, [Diaz de la Torre y Gonzaga-Palacios] exclaimed ‘Son como micos sucios’ (they are like dirty monkeys). From thence forth, until we departed those cold shores, Mico Sucio was the means by which we referred to these happy natives.”[xxx]
    This evidence once again completely contradicts Larson’s conclusions that earth lodges never existed in the southeast and should put his theory to rest once and for all.

    It should be noted that earth lodges were quite common in the American southwest and Midwest. The Navajo hogan is the most well known of these type structures from the Southwest. Another round building type from the American southwest was the kiva. Although not earth-covered it was a semi-subterranean structure found at Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) sites such as Chaco Canyon[xxxi] which is known to have had trade contacts with west Mexico. In the Midwest the Arikara, a Caddoan-speaking Pawnee tribe were known for building earth lodges in city clusters featuring up to a thousand such structures.[xxxii]

    Interestingly, the Earth Lodge at Ocmulgee appears to have features of both the southwestern kiva and the Midwestern earth lodge. A kiva was constructed with a solid low wall which supported the roof beams and the structure was entered through the roof which was not earth-covered whereas an Arikaran earth lodge was constructed from wood pole walls with the entrance being a narrow, tunnel-like feature and the whole structure covered in earth. The Earth Lodge at Ocmulgee has the kiva-like low wall supporting the roof beams but with Arikaran-like features such as the tunnel entrance and being completely covered in earth.

    Reconstruction of a kiva
    Reconstruction of the interior of a kiva. Click the image to view interactive 3D Quicktime VR movies of the Great Kiva. (Courtesy John Kantner)
    Pawnee Earth lodge model
    Model showing log wall construction of Pawnee earth lodge which is different from solid wall construction of a kiva and Ocmulgee Earth Lodge. But it also features the same type of tunnel-like entrance that the Ocmulgee Earth Lodge had.
    Ocmulgee Earth Lodge model
    Interior of Ocmulgee Earth Lodge
    As stated previously, it is also known that the Ancestral Puebloan people of the American southwest at Chaco Canyon had trade contacts with central Mexico via contacts in western Mexico.[xxxiii] It is also known that the Ancestral Puebloan people of the southwest had trade contacts with the Caddoans and the Spiro Mounds site. The existence of these round structures ( kivas and earth lodges) in the southwest, Midwest, and southeast along the very route suggested by both the artifacts and the migration legend, adds further support for this route. There are also cultural traditions among the Creek Indians that claim they originated out west near the “backbone of the world”[xxxiv] which is what they called the Rocky Mountains therefore this route is definitely a possibility.

    Interestingly, the Earth Lodge at Ocmulgee features an elevated platform in the shape of a bird such as an eagle or hawk. When viewed from the entryway of the Earth Lodge this bird form is inverted.

    Bird platform in Earth Lodge at Ocmulgee Mounds
    Bird-shaped eagle or hawk platform in the Earth Lodge at Ocmulgee Mounds.
    Caddoan head pot with bird design engraved around eye
    Caddoan head pot showing inverted eagle or hawk form around his eye. Click the image to view a 3D interactive movie of this artifact.
    An identical inverted bird form can be seen engraved on the previously mentioned Caddoan head pot. Were these the builders of Ocmulgee? The migration legend mentions that some of the people on the journey lagged behind the main group who first settled at Ocmulgee thus the Caddoans may represent these people.

    One more piece of evidence supports the west Mexico-Chaco Canyon-Spiro route. Several Caddoan head pots show a Puebloan solar cross symbol from the American southwest engraved on their forehead suggesting that there was, indeed, a connection with the American southwest.

    Caddoan head pot with Puebloan sun symbol
    Caddoan head pot showing Puebloan sun symbol from southwest U.S.
    The migration legend also clearly makes reference to earthquakes and a volcano. It is rare, though not unheard of, for the southeastern states to experience an earthquake. Thus this piece of data alone does not confirm a western origin. Yet the description of a volcano certainly begs the question as to how a Native American living in Georgia in 1733 could have given such an accurate description of something he could have never possibly seen. It is possible he had heard of a volcano from European colonists but in light of all the other corroborating evidence, the simplest explanation is that it is also an accurate recounting of real historical events.

    One final note on the Creek Migration Legend: the legend was recounted to English authorities in 1735 at their newly established colony in Savannah, Georgia by a Creek chief. According to a newspaper account in the London newspaper American Gazetteer, the “speech was curiously written in red and black characters, on the skin of a young buffalo, and translated into English, as soon as delivered in the Indian language….The said skin was set in a frame, and hung up in the Georgia Office, in Westminster.”[xxxv]

    It is interesting that the newspaper used the term “characters” and not “pictures” suggesting that the written version of the speech was not simply written in pictographs but in an actual alphabet. We know that Mayan scribes wrote their codices in red and black characters but it is presently not known if Olmecs or the west Mexican cultures did so as well. It is generally not accepted that any Native American groups had a written language but this newspaper account seems to question that idea. Creek tradition also holds that their ancient priests once had a written language reserved for their use alone.[xxxvi]

  28. Were Creek Indians from West Mexico?

    Linguistic Evidence

    In addition to all of the preceding evidence there is also linguistic evidence supporting a west Mexico origin. Nahuatl was the language of the Aztecs and many other tribes in Mexico. In their language the word chichi means “dog.” The first Native American leader that the British met when founding Georgia was named Tomochichi. In various documents Tomochichi is referred to as a “Dog King.” His name breaks down into two parts:

    Tomo- also sometimes spelled Tama (pronounced ‘taw-maw’), was an important Native American town named for a royal or chiefly lineage
    Chichi- Nahuatl for “dog”.
    Thus “Dog King” was an apt title and translation for Tomochichi.

    Tama was located down river from Ocmulgee Mounds where the Ocmulgee River and Oconee River meet and form the Altamaha River which flows to the Atlantic Ocean. An important satellite village of Tama was known as Tamatli. A river in this area is known as the Nottely River. The “-tli” suffix is a known Nahuatl suffix for nouns as is “-tla.”[xxxvii] Coincidentally, there was also a village named Tamatla.

    In western Mexico we find two towns and a river known as Tomatlan suggesting this entire region was known as Tomatlan. The Nahuatl suffix “-tlan” means “place of” thus Tomatlan means Place of the Toma.

    There is also a town named Tama in northern Louisiana. This area was once part of the Caddoan Mississippian Culture area whose capital was the aforementioned Spiro. Thus there are towns named Tama or Toma at important locations along the possible migration path suggested by the Creek migration legends. Whether any of these other locations named “Tama” are related will require further research.

    Additionally, the Tennessee River was known as the Callimako River on the earliest British maps of the region. Mako was the title for a chief or ruler in Creek towns. It was common practice to refer to the main town of a district as Chief’s House since this was the town in which the chief resided. In Nahuatl, calli means “house” thus Callimako would translate as “House of the Chief” or “Chief’s House.”

    Interestingly, in this same area of Georgia there is a river named the Soque named after a tribe of the same name that once lived there. It is pronounced identically to the name of a people in southwestern Mexico known as the Zoque. The Zoque are believed to be descendants of the Olmec.[xxxviii] As mentioned previously, features of Olmec culture such as the bird mask and three-pronged ceremonial mace as represented on a stela from the western Mexican state of Guerrero, appear to be similar or identical to designs found at the Etowah site in Georgia. Could Georgia’s Soque tribe have been descendants of the Olmec?

    Coincidentally, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a three pronged ceremonial mace collected from the Zoque of Mexico between the years 1930-1940.[xxxix] This ceremonial mace or “dancing wand,” as it is referred to, was used during the dance of San Roque. The bird man design from Etowah also appears to be dancing thus the so-called “ceremonial mace” could very well have been a “dancing wand” as well.

    Olmec-Zoque three-pronged dance wand
    “Dance wand used in the dance of San Roque” by the Zoque people of southern Mexico. (Nat’l Museum of the American Indian.)

    Pentagonal Mounds & Bearded Indians Another Olmec Indicator?

    Additionally, near the previously mentioned Tama, Louisiana is a Native American mound site known as Emerald Mound. It was built around 1250 AD, the same time period that Spiro was abandoned and the Etowah site was repopulated. Emerald Mound covers over eight acres, is pentagonal in form and has several additional mounds constructed on top of it.[xl] It is very similar to the Stirling Acropolis at the Olmec site of La Venta in Veracruz, Mexico.[xli]

    Emerald Mound pentagonal mound
    Stirling Acropolis at La Venta with additional mounds built on top. (from The Olmecs) Emerald Mound site plan showing its pentagonal form with additional mounds built on top (from
    It should be noted that the Olmecs are known for constructing earthen mounds although they had the technology to build stone pyramids. Likewise throughout Georgia and the rest of the southeast, the inhabitants built with earth not stone.

    The largest mound at the Etowah Mounds site is also pentagonal in form and constructed from earth. It has been noted that during the historic era, a Creek tribe named the Ocute still built pentagonal mounds. Curiously, early Spanish eye-witness accounts of the Ocute noted their men wore mustaches and their priests wore long beards.

    An Olmec cave painting in Guerrero near where the previously mentioned stela was discovered shows an Olmec priest who is also bearded.

    Olmec cave painting from Guerrero, Mexico
    Olmec cave painting in Guerrero[xlii]
    Bearded depictions of leaders are rare throughout the Americas yet the Olmec have several such depictions of their leaders across time and geographical regions. Thus to have eye-witness accounts of such bearded leaders in the same geographical region in America where other western Mexico cultural traits also appear provides one more layer of evidence, though circumstantial, to the case for a western Olmec tribe (possibly the Zoque) being one of the four who took part in the migration out of west Mexico.

    What was the significance of the pentagonal form? One clue comes from an engraved pot design which shows a pentagon within a swirling wind design thus suggesting that the pentagonal form was associated with the Creek Indian’s Wind Clan, their most ancient clan.

    SEAC logo
    Swirling wind/swastika design enclosing a pentagonal shape used as the logo for the Southeastern Archaeological Conference
    As noted previously, in Mesoamerica the god Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl is also associated with the wind. He is also associated with Venus as well. Is their any evidence that the Mississippian swirling wind/swastika design was also associated with Venus?

    In fact, there is. A shell gorget from Spiro Mounds shows a series of four feathered serpents in the form of a swastika surrounding a central cross-shaped symbol that throughout North and South America is associated with the planet Venus.

    Feathered rattlesnake swastika design from Spiro Mounds
    Spiro Mounds shell gorget featuring a swirling wind/swastika design created from four feathered serpents surrounding a Venus cross
    Thus three ideas (feathered serpents, wind, & Venus) are linked together on this shell gorget in the exact same way as they are in Mesoamerican religion.

    Also, cloth adorned with the Mesoamerican Venus symbol was found in a high status burial at Etowah suggesting that the chief, who lived atop the pentagonal Temple Mound, was associated not only with the sun but also Venus, the Morning Star.

  29. The Secret Relations Between Blacks and Mexicans
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    One-Drop Classification: one people forever united against oppression

    Colonial Mexico had the highest numbers of African slaves. Of the over one million casualties during the Mexican war of independence, most of them were Afro-Mexicans. Mexico’s commitment to harbor Black fugitive slaves triggered the Mexican-American war; she lost nearly 50 percent of her territory. After the war, Mexico undeterred, included in her constitution and continued her commitment to harbor fugitive slaves.
    Not long ago, Mexican-American TV host and comedian George Lopez was handed his DNA ancestry results by Mariah Carey – after the question was posed as to whether he would fall under the proverbial one-drop (African) racial classifi cation. Lopez’s results showed a 4 percent African blood.

    “Texican” actress Eva Longoria’s 3 percent African ancestry surfaced in DNA taken by PBS series Faces of America (Henry Louis Gates, Jr.). And National Geographic’s Genographic Mexican-American reference population attributes a 4 percent African contribution to the “La Raza” pool. The “Mestizo” – the proverbial “La Raza” Mexicano – customarily extols his Indian roots, and laments and or praises his Spanish roots – but rarely is the African part acknowledged.

    Eva Longoria
    The period of African slavery in Mexico began following devastation brought about by the inherent diseases of the Europeans, which infected and almost completely wiped out indigenous Mexicans. Having no natural immunity against smallpox, measles, typhoid, venereal diseases and other infectious maladies, natives were victims of ferocious epidemics in 1520, 1548, 1576-1579, and 1595-1596.
    It is estimated that when Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico in 1519, the indigenous population was about 27.6 million inhabitants. By 1605 only 1.7 million indigenous people had survived, a population decrease mulattoes; 15,000 Spaniards, and 80,000 Indians. Gemelli Careri, in his 1698 visit, concluded, “Mexico City contains about 100,00 inhabitants, but the greatest part of them are Blacks and Mulattoes by reason of the vast number of slaves that has been cessation of the slave trade the enslaved population steadily declined. However, the numbers of free Blacks grew and by 1810 comprised 10 percent of the population or roughly 624,000 people.

    The African population had a 3 male to 1 female ratio and since children born from Indigenous mothers carried their “free” status, African men married Native women to ensure that their descendants would be born free. According to the Mexican caste system imposed by Spain, the Indigenous population was considered citizens and could not be made slaves. At the bottom of the caste system were the Black slaves. Escaped slaves resorted to establishing settlements or palenques in Mexico’s inaccessible mountains to preserve their freedom.
    In 1591 Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco reported the existence of a group of cimarrones (Maroons) who had resided for the previous 30 years on a mountain called Coyula who “live as if they were actually in Guinea.” He referred to the famous case of Yanga, the Muslim maroon leader, who after fi ghting 30 years against the Spanish crown signed a peace accord and founded San Lorenzo de Los Negros, establishing the fi rst “freedom enclave” in Mexico.

    Mule driving, one of the lowest and frowned upon occupations, was almost completely carried out by Blacks and Afro-Indians. Mule drivers were plentiful in Mexico, thanks in part to the lack of roads for carts and carriages. Although considered unpleasant rowdies by the rich, Muleteers were welcomed in rural villages for bringing the latest news, songs and the hottest jokes about authority fi gures; moreover, mule trains traditionally carried contraband. From this occupation came many a fi ghter for Mexico in the war with Spain, including Vicente Guerrero, the Afro-Indian who became the second President of Mexico. Guerrero was a descendant of enslaved Africans brought to Mexico during colonial times. He was raised in the mountain town of Tixtla and spoke many indigenous languages.

    It is estimated that by the end of the Spanish domination, the Mestizo population was 40 percent, which included a large number of Afro-Mestizos.

    Who is the Mestizo?

    One scholar declared the Mestizos were the “revolutionary class.” McLaughlin and Rodriguez in “Forging of the Cosmic Race” identifi ed the mestizo as the “arch-typical Mexican.” These statements, however, really fail to defi ne the Mestizo. The word Mestizo is applied to mixed races, people who are darker than White.

    During the war of independence 1810- 1821, about 30 to 40 percent of mixed race Mexicans had African in their mix and were more likely to be militant. The Afro-Mestizo was placed between a rock and a hard place—and his inclination toward militancy came from the racist laws limiting jobs, places of residence, and marriage that set Blacks apart. Moreover, slavery was reserved for Africans only, be they mixed or pure. Census data reveal that “from Southern Talisco to Southern Michoacán and through the sugar plantations near Cuautla in Morelos 37% of the population was Afro-Mexican in 1810. The Huasteca uphill region behind the port of Tampico, census data shows the Tampico coast as much as 78 percent Afro Mexican, and in the highlands only 17 percent, the other 83 percent was comprised of Huasteca Indians. West of the Cuautla Valley, 50 percent of the population was Afro Mexican” and it was there that the longest battle of the independence war was fought.

    Emiliano Zapata, the Afro-Indian revolutionary hails from the Cuautla Valley. Rarely seen or acknowledged today, the current estimated Afro-Mexican population in Mexico is 450,000.

    Another indication of the importance of the Afro-Mexican during the war of independence is the decree abolishing slavery by priest Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico’s Founding Father, as enticement to attract Afro-Mexicans to the fighting ranks. Likewise, the vital importance of the Afro-Mexican soldier was evident in an incident that took place when Blacks were disgruntled because Jose Maria Morelos, a mestizo himself and Founding Father of Mexico, refused to recognize General Rayon’s appointment on their behalf. “Disappointed and despondent, they retired to El Veladero and made plans to incite the Negroes in Morelos’s army to slaughter the Whites. When Morelos heard about this activity, he struck hard and fast. Taking a small escort with him, he rushed southward to ‘remove the cancer,’ crushed the revolt before it could be launched, and caught and shot the leaders.”
    The Afro-Mestizo was predominant in Morelos’ independence army, which was another reason for targeting, otherwise Morelos would not have viewed this threat as a cancer.

    The Mexican war of independence claimed as many as one million lives, many of them Afro-Mexicans. The tragic massacre that took place during Mexico’s war of independence is vividly recounted by one scholar: “The Creole officers, faithful to their gachipin (Spaniard) generals, were willing to massacre the insurgents, and the mestizos and mulattos who formed the rank and file of the army were blindly obedient … when they met the Spaniards in battle, some of them tried to put the Spanish cannon out of action by throwing sombreros over their mouths.”

    Where is the Afro-Mexican? Hundreds of thousands died in the war of independence fertilizing Mexican soil, the rest has been absorbed in the genetic pool of the Mexican mestizo.

    By 1827 hardly any “Negro” slaves were left in Mexico. The whole slavery issue would have been history were it not for the fact that Texas, in the Northern part of Mexico, was being encroached upon by slave holding Anglos who brought slaves with them to settle unoccupied areas of Texas.

    Mexico’s effort to end slavery throughout her territory met with opposition and by the fall of 1825 almost one out of five persons in Texas was a “Negro” slave.

    Emiliano Zapata appears in this undated photo. Zapata is widely renowned as the voice of the Mexican Revolution, which began in 1910 because peasants were angry with the government for stealing their land. Photo: AP/Wide World photos
    Since Mexico was hospitable to any fugitive slave, and hundreds had fled to Mexican territories, the U.S. proposed a Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between Mexico and the United States to stop the trend. Both parties signed the treaty on July 10, 1826 – however it had to be ratified by the Mexican Congress and was met with staunch opposition. The Committee of Foreign Relations of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies, had a major problem with Article 33 of the proposed treaty, which dealt with fugitive slaves. The Committee ultimately recommended its rejection.
    After the Mexican American War wherein Mexico lost nearly 50 percent of its territory, fugitive slaves still crossed the border seeking refuge from the merciless oppression of their masters. Mexico once more reaffirmed her protection of fugitive slaves recommitting in the Constitution of 1857 to freedom for all fugitive slaves who set foot on Mexican soil.

    Mexico also constitutionally banned any intentional extradition treaty-covering individuals who had been slaves.

    When in 1857 James Frisby, a “Negro” seaman jumped ship in Veracruz and claimed to have been a slave in New Orleans “whose master had signed him on board the Metacomet as crew;” the port captain refused to turn him over. U.S. Representative in Mexico John Forsyth resorted to arm-twisting Mexico even to the point of declaring that Mexico extended a privilege to the seaman because of the “ebony color of his skin.” Forsyth berated Mexico for letting a Black get away with what those of “pure white blood … the master blood of the earth … blood which has conquered and civilized and Christianized the world.” Forsyth in his rage declared, “If Mexico is so deeply imbued with the mania of negrophilism [love of “Negroes”] … imprisoning our White Citizens and making free our Slaves, as fast as they put foot on Mexican soil, cannot long endure consistently with peace and harmony between the two countries.” Forsyth failed to intimidate Mexico, and she remained adamant in her defense and protection of fugitive Black slaves.

    Despite all threats and the loss of 50 percent of its territory, Mexicans continued to extend a helping hand to escaping Black slaves from the United States, the imperialist power to the North.

    Continuing that tradition, this new millennium shall witness the Unity and Oneness of Blacks and Mexicans in order to strengthen our common goal towards freedom, justice and equality under the Creator of the heavens and the earth, our true and common origin.

    (Diogenes Muhammad is a “Latino” Muslim pioneer and a contributing writer for The Final Call and its forerunner Muhammad Speaks.)

  30. Tianguis Of Ancient Mexico
    By Ralph F. Graves
    June 2006 Guadalajara-Lakeside Volume 22, Number 10

    Believe it or not, each time you visit the local “tianguis” (an Aztec word meaning market), you are indulging in one of Mexico’s oldest customs. In addition, you’re probably pleasing the gods of the market, but more about that later.
    In the early Americas, trade and commerce were driving forces for the development of the emerging civilizations and the tianguis was an integral part of the process. Back then, regional specialization in the production of goods was the norm. A settlement situated near clay deposits might produce pottery. Another, in a fertile area, might raise produce or livestock while still another, having no natural resources, might specialize in handicrafts.
    As wars, droughts and migrations resulted in the interchange of cultures, barter and trade naturally evolved and helped in the formation of other institutions and infrastructures. Public roads were built, lodging houses or inns were erected, ferry boats, rafts and bridges could be found along the rivers, all to facilitate trade between remote villages, towns and cities.
    The local market was the central point for the distribution of the various products and wares from surrounding areas. Every town of any size boasted at least one market and many had several, a produce market, a housewares market, perhaps a livestock market, and so on. Smaller villages without a permanent market, would stage weekly market days or “tianguis” where merchants and customers would congregate to do business.
    The goods bought, sold and traded included just about anything imaginable. Aside from produce, clothing and household goods, one might find precious metals, building materials, firewood, tobacco, herbal medicines, farm implements, animals, birds, musical instruments, weapons and even slaves who had been captured in battle.
    Early on, trading in the markets was based on a barter system where goods were exchanged through bargaining. As the system became more sophisticated, some goods took on the characteristics of currency. Among the Mayans, for instance, copper in various shapes and sizes was used as money to purchase other commodities. Shells, precious stones, beads, cacao and grains of gold were also common mediums of exchange.
    The marketplace, whether in cities or in small villages, became the hub of social activities as well as trade. It was usually situated adjacent to the main temple in the center of the community. One Spanish writer observed that, apart from the usual buying and selling, women would gather to exchange gossip, while men would seek out news of local events and affairs.
    But the primary function of the market was commerce. In a letter to the king of Spain, Cortez marveled at the scope of the markets in the city of Tenochtitlan, “…the city has many plazas where there are perpetual markets in the business of buying and selling. Every kind of merchandise is sold in its own place and in this they have much order. There is a market where every day 60,000 people come to buy and sell all the kinds of merchandise that there is in this land.”
    During the Aztec empire, the markets were tightly regulated by the government. Markets operated under the watchful eyes of the “market gods” who were regularly appeased with offerings and sacrifices. But as backups, perhaps, the rulers appointed government officials for each market. Their duties included responsibility for fair prices, insuring that merchandise was of good quality, and policing for theft and fraud. Those apprehended for violations of rules governing the market were severely punished.
    Usage of the markets was not only encouraged, but in some cases, mandated. In many cultures specific days were designated market days set aside for shopping, much like a holiday. Each household was expected to visit a market at least once every five days in order to keep the market gods happy. Another law forbade anyone from buying or selling merchandise while en route to the marketplace. To do so could upset the gods who might then harm the orderly operation of the market.
    Many of the customs and traditions of the early marketing system have persisted to today’s tianguis. The weekly market is still a common fixture in most rural areas of Mexico, and in some neighborhoods of larger cities as well. A goodly percentage of the merchandise sold there is much the same in variety and category as was encountered by the conquistadores. And the markets themselves, the rich smells, the vibrant colors, the buzz of activity and the diversity of merchandise, have changed little over the centuries.
    So, even if your primary shopping destination is Wal-Mart, Sears or Sam’s Club, don’t miss out on the rewarding experience of the local “tianguis.”
    After all, you wouldn’t want to upset the gods of the market.

  31. Hi
    Just wondering where you found the quote; “No European who has tasted the life of Indians can afterwards not bare to live in any other society” – Ben Franklin

    thank you

  32. For all the nay-sayers,


    published by Khalif Sarahize – 30 jul. 2012

    vid 2.01: Walter Neves is a physical anthropologist at Sao Paulo university in Brasil has been using a standard and reliable archeological measure, the shape of the skull, to find out to what race (Luzia, gj) she belonged to. He fully expected Luzia to be a Mongoloid an ancestor of the American Indians……

    vid 4.27 : Richard Neave forensic artist of the university of Manchester: that to me is a Negro face.

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